Namaskar or Namaste is the most popular
form of greeting in India. It is a general salutation that is used to welcome somebody and
also for bidding farewell. While doing namaskar, both the palms are placed together and
raised below the face to greet a person.
It is believed that both the hands symbolise one
mind, or the self meeting the self. While the right hand represents higher nature, the
left hand denotes worldly or lower nature.
Other common forms of greetings by various
communities and regions in India are - Sat-sri-akal by the Sikhs, Adaab by
the Muslims, Vannakkam by the Tamilians, Juley by the Laddhakis and Tashi
Delag by the Sikkimese, amongst others.
Tilak is a ritual mark on the forehead. It can
be put in many forms as a sign of blessing , greeting or auspiciousness. The tilak is
usually made out of a red vermilion paste (kumkum) which is a mixture of turmeric,
alum, iodine, camphor, etc. It can also be of a sandalwood paste (chandan) blended
The tilak is applied on the spot between the brows
which is considered the seat of latent wisdom and mental concentration, and is very
important for worship. This is the spot on which yogis meditate to become one with Lord
Brahma. It also indicates the point at which the spiritual eye opens. All thoughts and
actions are said to be governed by this spot. Putting of the coloured mark symbolizes the
quest for the 'opening ' of the third eye. All rites and ceremonies of the Hindus begin
with a tilak topped with a few grains of rice placed on this spot with the index finger or
the thumb. The same custom is followed while welcoming or bidding farewell to guests or
Is performed as an act of veneration and love. It is
often performed as a mark of worship and to seek blessings from God, to welcome the
guests, for children on their birthdays, family members on auspicious occasions or to
welcome a newly wedded couple.
For performing Arati, five small lamps called
niranjanas are filled with ghee or oil and arranged in a small tray made of metal. A wick
is made out of cotton wool and placed in the lamps. A conchshell filled with water,
auspicious leaves or flowers, incense or lighted camphor are also placed in the tray. The
lamps are lit and the tray is rotated in a circular motion in front of the deity or the
person to be welcomed. The purpose of performing arati is to ward off evil effects and the
malefic influence of the evil eye.
Flower garlands are generally offered as a mark
of respect and honour. They are offered to welcome the visitors or in honour to the Gods
and Goddesses. The garlands are generally made with white jasmine and orange marigold
flowers. They are weaved in thread tied in the end with a help of a knot.
A bindi is an auspicious mark worn by young girls and
women . Bindi is derived from bindu, the Sanskrit word for dot . It is usually a
red dot made with vermilion powder which is worn by women between their eyebrows on their
forehead. Considered a symbol of Goddess Parvati, a bindi signifies female energy and is
believed to protect women and their husbands. Traditionally a symbol of marriage, it has
also become decorative and is worn today by unmarried girls and women as well.
No longer restricted in colour or shape, bindis
are seen in many bright colours and in different shapes and designs. They are also made of
coloured felt and embellished with coloured glass or glitter.
Many Indian women wear a pin on their nose studded
with stones, called a nose pin. A symbol of purity and marriage, the nose pin is today
adorned by many unmarried girls as well.
Is a necklace made of black beads, worn only by
the married women as a mark of being married. It is the Indian equivalent of the western
The mangalsutra is tied by the groom around his
bride's neck. Mangalsutra is generally made out of two strings of small black beads with a
gold pendant. The black beads are believed to act as protection against evil. The married
women wear this to protect their marriage and the life of their husband.
In southern India, the mangalsutra is called
'tali'. It is a small gold ornament, strung on a cotton cord or a gold chain.
Are a pair of shell (shakha) and red
coral (paula) bangles worn as marriage symbols by the Bengali women.